We Choose To Adopt Energy Transition, But How Will We Succeed?

President John F. Kennedy speaking at Rice University on September 12, 1962 (Credit: NASA)
President John F. Kennedy speaking at Rice University on September 12, 1962 (Credit: NASA)

‘We choose to go to the moon.’ Was the famous speech at Rice University of President John F. Kennedy to express his ambition to send his nation to the Moon1. At the time, his call was far from clearly achievable. But it was a very clear roadmap and it quickly gained traction. The success of the Apollo project is well known. Neil Armstrong did land on the Moon within a decade and the American flag is still planted on its surface.

Panel discussion at the CEDA Dredging Days 2019 with Mike van der Vijver
Panel discussion at the CEDA Dredging Days 2019 with Mike van der Vijver

At the CEDA Dredging Days 20192, there was an interesting panel discussion on ‘Energy transition: the views in our dredging community’3. Panel members were: Eric de Deckere, Michael Deruyk, Kaj Portin and Klaas Visser. The discussion was moderated by Mike van der Vijver from MindMeeting. As an introductory teaser to the audience, he posited the claim: ‘Excessive ambition drives breakthroughs’. The question is: ‘Is the dredging industry ambitious enough to convert to a new fossil free energy source?’ The audience was polled for their opinion on a scale from one to ten and the response ranged from three to eight. The three represented the position, that the industry is not doing much. What is visibly done, are only single purpose, company specific solutions that are not adopted by the community. On the other hand, there was also a very positive signal with an eight for ambition. The sense of urgency is very well present in the community. Most companies are developing plans and cooperating in working groups, such as the CEDA Working Group on Energy Efficiency4. Also, the government is pitching in with initiatives on zero emission maintenance dredging, where the dredging community is actively participating in putting forward proposals.

So, why is there still no zero emission dredge? What is the ambition lacking? The hint is the opinion that the effort is not focussed. The strong motivation in Kennedy’s speech was that there was a very clear picture what to do. What do we do: ‘Put a man on the Moon’. When: ‘By the end of the decade’. How: ‘Bring him safely back’. Ambition with a clear plan can indeed achieve great things. Ambition without motivation will only bring daydreaming and lethargy.

Block diagram of influencers for energy transition in the dredging community
Block diagram of influencers for energy transition in the dredging community

To achieve something, we need motivation. And who is responsible for pulling this off? Mike polled the audience again for: 1) Government, 2) Public opinion, 3) Companies, 4) Technology. There was not a clear picture here either. All positions are valid. Another driver is the reward for the effort. The Apollo project effectively created part of our modern society. What would the energy transition yield for the dredging community: ‘Learning by challenge’, ‘Flexibility and resilience in energy generation’, ‘Low maintenance and higher independence’?

At this website I can’t change the world, but addressing most issues mentioned, I can only put forward my idea on the ‘How’ motivation. We know how to apply power. As long as the power arrives electrically, we can use it. Essentially, we have to generate electricity with a flexible power source. The investment lifetime of a dredge often exceeds 30 years, but under the current circumstances, the power plant only lasts ten. The solution would be to have some separate module for power generation. Either locally, near the dredge, or remote at the end of the pipeline. As every project and application will be different, it will be a challenge to design the specific solution. But I am looking forward in developing the solutions below with any interested customer5.

Transition schedule to convert to fossil fuel free dredging equipment
Transition schedule to convert to fossil fuel free dredging equipment

References

  1. We choose to go to the Moon, Wikipedia
  2. CEDA Dredging Days 2019, CEDA
  3. Programme 7 November 2019, Panel Discussion, CEDA
  4. CEDA Working Group on Energy Efficiency, CEDA
  5. Innovation at Damen Dredging Equipment, Damen

See also

Historical Origins Exhibition at the WODCON: Yu the Great

Statue of a bronze Ox, commemorating Yu the Great.
Statue of a bronze Ox, commemorating Yu the Great.

Traveling all the way to the WODCON in Shanghai China1 presented an excellent opportunity to visit this wonderful country. So, after the congress, we travelled to Beijing, to visit the tourist highlights. However, as obsessed with dredging as I am, I can find inspiration for the stories on this website anywhere. Take for example this bronze ox. Quietly staring at the Summer Palace2, it might easily be overlooked by the innocent visitor. But it is very relevant for our dredging community. It is to commemorate the great Yu, who subdued the flood with the first dredging project in the world3.

Exhibit about Yu the Great at the historical origin show at the WODCON 2019.
Exhibit about Yu the Great at the historical origin show at the WODCON 2019.

Next to the interesting presentations and the conventional dredging exhibition, the WODCON organisation arranged a nice little exhibition on historic origins of dredging in China. Of course the first exhibit was about Yu. Intrigued by this little piece of information, I asked around and did some research on the internet to puzzle together, what the sign did not tell.

First of all, there are that many records4. It has been so long ago, there only remains oral tradition to consult. The facts are inconclusive, even claiming it is just a mythical tale. So, we will approach this Mythbuster style. Examine the myth and the facts. Test it. And if it does not provide the expected results, take it to the extreme. Unfortunately, we will not blow things up at this time. Maybe we will do that later on another topic.

Sign at the bronze ox at the Summer Palace, Beijing.
Sign at the bronze ox at the Summer Palace, Beijing.

The story depicted on the information sign is not completely in line with the historical data available. Let’s start with the ‘iron’ part of the ox. According to several sources, the adventures of the Great Yu may have happened 2000BCE. That is in the middle of the Stone Age5, at best early Bronze Age. Also, it was usually not ‘to ward of the floods’. Those were mitigated by a framework of dikes, dams and overflow weirs6. When an ox was mentioned, it is about protecting these civil works. But nowhere can I find a solid explanation about what an ox can do to protect a dike or how this procedure would contain the river in its human designed trajectory.

Water buffalo at the Li River, near Yangshuo.
Water buffalo at the Li River, near Yangshuo.

Even today, one can find bovine creatures standing in the river. And from a distance they might easily be mistaken for a field of boulders. Conversely, a field of boulders might also be mistaken for a herd of oxen…

Boulder field or rudimentary groyne in the Li River, near Yangshuo.
Boulder field (or rudimentary groyne?) in the Li River, near Yangshuo.

So, my hypothesis is: ‘the Great Yu constructed his dikes and protected them with groynes against erosion7. When the uninitiated had to describe what he constructed, they compared those with water buffalo and the oral tradition morphed this into iron oxen.’ This is only my opinion after just a little research and it is up to educated historians with their research to disprove it.

Discussing these civil works and the containment of rivers, made me think of my beloved home country through the famous Dutch poem ‘Memories of Holland’8.

Excellent masterpiece of hydraulic engineering to contain a river and example of modern groynes. (Credit: van den Herik-Sliedrecht).
Excellent masterpiece of hydraulic engineering to contain a river and example of modern groynes9. (Credit: van den Herik-Sliedrecht).

References

  1. WODCON, Damen
  2. Summer Palace, Wikipedia
  3. Great Flood (China), Wikipedia
  4. Yu the Great, Wikipedia
  5. History of China, Prehistory, Wikipedia
  6. Chinese Myth of the Deluge, China Heritage Quarterly
  7. Groyne, Wikipedia
  8. Herinnering aan Holland, David Reid Poetry Translation Prize
  9. Kribverlaging Waal Fase 3, Van den Herik-Sliedrecht

See also

My WODCON 2019 Presentation: Launching Robotic Dredging

Me, presenting my WODCON 2019 contribution.
Me, presenting my WODCON 2019 contribution.

Yesterday, I gave my presentation at the WODCON 2019 in Shanghai1. The WODCON is the triannual world dredging conference, were everybody in the dredging industry meets and exchanges knowledge and ideas. Just as I mentioned in my New Year’s post, I sometimes like to delve into some old archives, get inspiration and hatch new ideas2. So did I for this presentation.

Overview of the ‘Ketelmeer’ (Credit: Google Maps).
Overview of the ‘Ketelmeer’ (Credit: Google Maps).

A seminal dredging project concerning environmental dredging is the ‘Ketelmeer’ clean up dredging project, resulting in the creation of the contaminated sediment storage depot in the artificial island ‘IJsseloog’3. As careful removal of the contaminated sediment required novel dredging techniques, the government challenged the dredging industry to test four innovative concepts. The results were evaluated by the institute now called ‘Deltares’ and published in a report4. The original conclusion of the report was, that the auger dredge was the best in reducing the turbidity. Later, the bigger auger dredge ‘HAM291’ was constructed and used to actually clean up the lake. With the knowledge and the experience of the auger we also developed a range of auger attachments for our DOP pumps5.

Traditional auger attachment for a DOP pump excavator combination.
Traditional auger attachment for a DOP pump excavator combination.

Reading the Ketelmeer report again, it occurred to me, that one parameter had not been properly accounted for: the size of the dredge. The auger dredge was by far the smallest dredge in the game. With a weighed scoring method, the dredges were also compared in size and installed power. The reasoning is that a bigger dredge has more interaction with its environment. Naturally, the environment gets more disturbed and turbidity levels should be higher for a bigger dredge. And the data was there to support this hypothesis. Smaller is better! Still, this does not undermine the initial results of the concept, as that was evaluated for turbidity per cubic meter. The bigger dredges also delivered more production. But when comparing dredges of the same concept might the smaller ones will perform better on turbidity. And this is in accordance with our experience. Every project where we’ve supplied these auger dredge units, the contractor and the client where surprised and happy about the achieved turbidity levels. Now, we know why: smaller is less turbidity.

The next step in performance might be reached by further decreasing the size of the dredge. However, the DOP is already as small as it is for a viable application on an excavator. The conclusion is to have an auger operating directly on the bottom: an unmanned submarine dredging machine!

Possible general arrangement of a robotic dredge submarine.
Possible general arrangement of a robotic dredge submarine.

This machine should navigate by itself and self-supporting. The wear parts of the auger should be exchanged by itself and solar panels can provide extra energy for extended missions. It has only a small hopper and discharge should also be done quick and automatically. An unmanned barge or even a dump truck trailer at the shore of the waterway can be replaced at longer intervals. Obstacles and other tricky spots can be alerted to a human supervisor for later intervention. One machine alone does not have an impressive production. The real power is in applying them in numbers. As we are standing on the brink of a revolution in robotics and artificial intelligence, this scenario may be not as farfetched as from your first impression. Imagine a whole school of these mechanical fishes cleaning up your waterway, while you sleep…

Working method of robotic dredge submarine (Credit: Judith Korver).
Working method of robotic dredge submarine (Credit: Judith Korver).

References

  1. WODCON, Damen
  2. New Year’s post 2019, Discover Dredging
  3. Ketelmeer project, Wikipedia
  4. Rapportage baggerproeven Ketelmeer. RIZA Rapport, 97.023, ISBN 9036950708
  5. DOP Pumps, Damen

See also